The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 197 parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in Paris and agreed on 12 December 2015.   The agreement was signed at UN Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 by states and regional economic integration organisations parties to the UNFCCC (convention).  The agreement stated that it would only enter into force if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.  On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. The Minister of the Environment told CBC News this week that she thought there would be a plan by the fall if Canada intended to ratify the Paris agreement. The United Nations says it will set a record for most countries that sign an international agreement in one day. The fight against climate change requires the efforts of the international community as a whole. After years of debate over ensuring the political commitments of all countries to reduce their emissions, the Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015 as part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The agreement aims to prevent the global average temperature from rising to dangerous levels that would cause irreversible damage to the environment. This is the first multilateral agreement on climate change that contains commitments from all countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve this goal, the agreement is designed with an integrated “cycle of ambition” in which all countries – including large emitters – must gradually make more ambitious efforts to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions over time. The ambitious cycle will be informed by individual reports on progress and a regular assessment of progress at the global level, based on the best available climate science, including the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The Paris Agreement will help ensure that countries` policies and measures to combat climate change are informed, with the latest scientific knowledge, of the causes and effects of anthropogenic climate change. Seven other states signed the Paris Agreement but did not ratify it. The overall objective of the agreement is to prevent global temperatures at pre-industrial levels from rising by less than 2oC in order to avoid the most catastrophic effects of sea level rise. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020.